Why is Non-Treated Sodium Bentonite

The bentonite term was used as a name given to the clay in America that began operating in Ford Benton in Wyoming in the 19th century. Actually bentonite is a clay mineral in smectite group. Its main components montmorillonite mineral. The chemical formula is A14Si8020 (OH4) .nH2O. The crystal structure of this montmorillonite is leafy like myc. There are two types of laminated leaves, there is one tetrahedral silica leaf on each side of the central octahedral alumina leaf.

Between these leaves there is a continuous water body. If the content of this water is cation, it can be easily replaced with other cations. All the important properties of bentonite originate from this layer of constituent water. Its density is 2.5 - 2.8gr / cm3. When the same bentonite is converted into powder, the density is 1.6-1 gr / cm3 '.

Bentonites are the result of volcanic or magmatic alteration in certain conditions. Crude bentonite is soft and its fragments are suitable for breaking. When applied, it spreads with an oily appearance and sticks to the surface. It is soft, porous, shapeable and predominantly colloidal silica. It can be light yellow, greenish yellow, pinkish beige, white, brown, green, gray or light pink. One of the most important features of bentonite is that it swells in water and brings a gelling mass. To constitute a commercial value, it must be at least five times its own volume. Bentonites, which exhibit an increase in volume by 1215 times by adsorbing water of 5-6 times its own weight, are generally considered good quality.

Bentonites can be categorized in five groups:

-Alkali bentonite (Na-Bentonite)

Semi-alkali bentonite (Ca-Na-Bentonite)

-The alkaline-earth bentonite (Ca-Bentonite)

-The alkaline-earth semi-bentonite

-Activated bentonite.

While alkali bentonite has highly developed viscosity, thixotropic pressure aquifer and plastic properties, Ca-Bentonite has superior bleaching barometer and absorption properties. Accordingly, in the preparation of Na-bentonite drilling mud; it can be used as casting sand, barograph and pellet binder, while Ca-Bentonite is used for refining of oils, sugar, etc. Trade Operations are performed according to the standards of the Oil Companies Material Association (OCMA) band scraper and API (The American Petroleum Institute). In Turkey, TS-EN-IS013500 standards are considered. Common terms for the smectite group are summarized below for convenience in identification.

Main Mineral

Similar and identical words

Sodium montmorillonite

Sodium bentonite, synthetic bentonite, swelling bentonite, sodium swelling bentonite

Calcium montmorillonite

Calcium bentonite, second order bentonite, non-swelling bentonite

Magnesium montmorillonite

Saponite, Armargocide

Potassium montmorillonite

Meta bentonite

Lithium-magnesium montmorillonite



Presence in Nature
Bentonite is a type of clay formed by chemical decomposition or decay of volcanic ash, tuff and lavas which are rich in terms of aluminum and magnesium. The most important feature is the montmorillonite group clay minerals, which are basically bentonite which can swell. Main rocky of bentonite is the volcanic ash and tuff. The ash and tuffs form montmorillonite when they decompose in basic environment. The Montmorillonite group minerals takes the name bentonite, when they are transported unchanged and mixed with other minerals. According to their formation, the bentonite deposits are divided into volcanic, magmatic and sedimentary.

Bentonite deposits with volcanic origin
If the mass that will form a basic volcanic rock is coming out in the form of tuff on the earth, there will be basic ashes / tuffs that have been layered in the pit areas around this spewing fume. These deposits contain very fine-grained feldspar crystals just like milled. In such an area, the pH-rich over-ground and underground waters, which will operate later, transform the feldspar into montmorillonite. Thus, volcanoclastic bentonite deposits are formed.

Bentonite deposits with volcanic (hydrothermal) origin

The magmatic masses in the depths, acidic hydrothermal solutions are passed through the basement at the initial phase. Due to the alkaline elements which are mixed into them, these solutions obtain basic properties. The basic hydrothermal solution transforms into montmorillonite by destroying feldspars. Bentonite deposits in the shape of veins extending deep into the earth are magmatic bentonite deposits.

Sedimentary bentonite deposits
These are also called bentonitic kills. While the primary bentonites formed by the alteration of the volcanic rocks have worn away and moved away from their place, they have lost some original elements inside and have taken other elements into their structure. In this way, they lose their original properties and gain clay qualities. Bentonite formed by sedimentary bentonitic clay and volcanic postvolcanic alteration is the most common one existing in nature.


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